Academic Calendar 2013 Search Office of the Registrar Western Homepage
Academic Calendar 2014 UNDERGRADUATE COURSE INFORMATION Earth Sciences (S)
INTRODUCTION
UNDERGRADUATE SESSIONAL DATES
STUDENT SERVICES
ACADEMIC INFORMATION
STUDENT FINANCIAL SERVICES
FACULTIES
UNDERGRADUATE COURSE INFORMATION
FACULTY MEMBERS
AFFILIATED UNIVERSITY COLLEGES
GLOSSARY
NEW MODULES/PROGRAMS
FIRST YEAR UPDATES
TABLE OF CONTENTS




Earth Sciences (S)
Earth Sciences 1022A/B - Earth Rocks!
What our planet is made of, how it works, and how it affects us. Framed on the interactions of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. Specific topics include: geological time and earth history; formation of rocks and minerals; rock deformation; volcanoes and earthquakes; plate tectonics and mountain building; natural resources.
Antirequisite(s): Earth Sciences 1070A/B, 1081A/B.
Prerequisite(s):
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 2 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 1023A/B - Planet Earth: Shaken and Stirred
An overview of the origin and development of Earth and solar system; constitution and active processes of Earth interior; how these processes have shaped Earth evolution in the past and how they continue to control surface phenomena such as earthquake and volcanic activity. Labs will introduce the main resource exploration techniques.
Antirequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2123A/B.
Prerequisite(s):
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 2 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 1070A/B - Introduction to the Geology and Resources of Earth
An introduction to geology covering rock forming minerals and rock forming processes. Emphasis will be placed on how mineral and hydrocarbon resources develop. A survey of the geological record is carried out to illustrate how resources are classified and distributed through time.
Antirequisite(s): Earth Sciences 1022A/B, 1081A/B.
Prerequisite(s):
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: Only available online, 0.5 course. 
Purchase of Rock and Mineral Kit required.
back to top
Earth Sciences 1081A/B - Resources, Environment and Sustainability in a Material Society
This course introduces students to the relationship between humans and their geological environment. Emphasis is placed on the evidence for perturbations of Earth's natural environments by humans that impact on our planet's future. Specific topics include utilization of natural resources, waste management, water quality, geological hazards, and global change.
Antirequisite(s): Earth Sciences 1022A/B, 1070A/B.
Prerequisite(s):
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 2 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 1083F/G - Life on Planet Earth
Concepts of the development of life on Earth. Darwinian evolution and modern concepts of evolution. Genetics and evolution. Mode and rate of evolution. A survey of the vertebrate fossil record with focus on particular groups, including dinosaurs. Major extinction events in the fossil record. Origin of the geological time scale.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s):
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 3 lecture hours, 1 tutorial hour, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 1086F/G - Origin and Geology of the Solar System
Our best perception of the origin of the Universe, the Milky Way Galaxy, and our Solar System, meteorites, asteroids, comets and the formation of planets. The slow growth of Planetary Science reason and analysis of hypotheses. Why and how Earth evolved along a path radically different than the other planets.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s):
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: The equivalent of 3 lecture hours per week. Offered only online (see Western Distance Studies); 0.5 course
back to top
Earth Sciences 1088F/G - A Foundation for Medical and Forensic Geology
Practical applications of the Earth Sciences to human welfare. Aspects of origin, natural concentration, and biological intake of earth materials are considered and the significance of these substances to human health is discussed. Use of earth materials in surgery, treatment of disease and of Earth Science techniques to solve criminal cases are covered.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s):
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 3 lecture hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 1089F/G - Earth, Art and Culture
An examination of Earth materials used in the arts over the history of human culture. Topics include: Earth materials as media in the Visual Arts (pigments, stone and clay); rocks, minerals and fossils as motifs in famous works of art; landscape photography; gemstones and jewelery; earth materials in wine and cuisine, and modern technology.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s):
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 3 lecture hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 2001F/G - Exploring the Planets
An introduction to planetary science and the exciting frontier of space exploration; emphasis is placed on the processes shaping the planets and moons of the Solar System and how this relates to the evolution of Earth, the Solar System, and life; attention paid to current results from planetary exploration missions.
Antirequisite(s): Astronomy 2201A/B, 2232F/G and the former Planetary Science 3380A/B.
Prerequisite(s):
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 2 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 2123A/B - The Dynamic Earth
An introduction to the Earth as a large heat engine; topics will focus on large scale dynamic processes that occur in the deep interior (mantle and core convection) and their relation to activity and phenomena on the face of the Earth (tectonic plate motions, plate interactions, earth magnetic field, etc.).
Antirequisite(s): Earth Sciences 1023A/B.
Prerequisite(s):
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 2 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 2130Y - Field Geography and Geology of Southwestern Ontario
A field-trip based course exploring the history and patterns of geology, physical landscapes and resources of southwestern Ontario. To be offered in the first half of the Fall semester; four mandatory, full day field excursions supported by a weekly lecture.
Antirequisite(s): Geography 2130Y or registration in an Earth Sciences Specialization, Honors Specialization or Professional Program.
Prerequisite(s):
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 0.5 course.
Enrolment limited to students registered in the Minor or Major in Earth and Planetary Sciences; recommended to be taken in second year and may not be taken after ES 2250Y. Transportation fee of approximately $60 required.
back to top
Earth Sciences 2200A/B - Plate Tectonic Theory, Environments and Products
Rock types and their distribution within the Earth's crust are a result of tectonics, including continental rifting, seafloor spreading, subduction, obduction, and orogenic uplift and collapse. Lectures synthesize and explain major rock types in primary and secondary tectonic settings. Laboratories examine rocks and textures in hand specimens.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Any 0.5 Earth Sciences course at the 1000 level or registration in a Major, Specialization, Honors Specialization or Professional program in the Faculty of Science or in the Basic Medical Sciences.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 2201A/B - Structural Geology
Deformation of Earth's crust; description of geological structures; construction and interpretation of geologic maps, cross sections and block diagrams; stereographic and orthographic representation of structural data; mechanical behavior of rocks; origin and tectonic significance of geological structures.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2200A/B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
Note: Grade 12 Physics or 0.5 course in first year Physics is recommended before taking this course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 2206A/B - Mineral Systems, Crystallography, and Optics
Introduction to mineral chemistry, crystal chemistry and mineral paragenesis, with emphasis on rock-forming minerals and ore minerals. Identification of minerals and mineral properties in hand specimen and thin section.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s):
Corequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2200A/B, or registration in a Materials Science module.
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
Note: Grade 12 Chemistry or 0.5 course in Chemistry is recommended.
back to top
Earth Sciences 2220A/B - Environmental and Exploration Geophysics I
A brief introduction to applied seismology – the investigation of Earth structure using sound waves in rocks. Topics include: seismic reflection methods, a cornerstone of oil and gas exploration; seismic refraction methods; earthquake seismology. This lab-oriented course will provide hands-on experience with computers and analysis of large digital data sets.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): 0.5 course from Calculus 1000A/B, the former Calculus 1100A/B, or Calculus 1500A/B, Mathematics 1225A/B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 2222A/B - Data Analysis and Signal Processing in the Sciences
An introduction to data analysis techniques, including but not limited to, filtering, interpolation techniques, transforms, and correlation analyses. A variety of applications from various fields will be used to illustrate these techniques, including earth sciences (seismology), economics (financial data), atmospheric sciences (climate change), medicine (electrocardiograms), and engineering (circuit analysis).
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): 0.5 course from Calculus 1000A/B, the former Calculus 1100A/B, 1500A/B or Mathematics 1225A/B; or Applied Mathematics 1413.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s): 0.5 course from Calculus 1301A/B, 1501A/B, Applied Mathematics 1201A/B or the former Calculus 1201A/B, Mathematics 1228A/B, 1229A/B, 1600A/B or the former Linear Algebra 1600A/B, Statistical Sciences 1024A/B.
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 2230A/B - Introduction to Geochemistry
Effects of temperature, pressure and bulk composition on stabilities of minerals in natural geological settings are evaluated using thermodynamic principles. Reaction rates among minerals and fluids, including the effects of natural catalysts and inhibitors, and biotic mediation are addressed. Introduction to the principles of radioisotope and stable isotope geochemistry.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 1301A/B or the former Chemistry 1100A/B and Earth Sciences 2200A/B or permission of the Department.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 2231A/B - Birth, Life, and Death of Elements, Planets and Stars
Discussion of the formation of the elements in stellar interiors. Production of stable and unstable isotopes, with emphasis on their rate of decay. Development of the "absolute" time scale. The immensity of time and consequences of energy production are discussed with respect to the "life" of the Earth, other planets and the Sun.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2200A/B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 3 lecture hours, 1 tutorial hour, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 2240F/G - Catastrophic Events in Earth History 
Rare events so catastrophic that they leave evidence in the geologic record and threaten life on Earth. Included are impacts by asteroids and comets, eruptions from giant resurgent volcanic calderas, large to mega-earthquakes and associated tsunami, and dramatic reduction of atmospheric oxygen by release of reservoirs of methane hydrate.
Antirequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2241A/B.
Prerequisite(s): Completion of first year requirements.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: The equivalent of 3 lecture hours per week. Offered only online (see Western Distance Studies),  0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 2241A/B - Hazardous Earth
Earth processes leading to disasters; the amplification of earth processes by human activity; individual, national and global policies mitigating natural disasters. Volcanoes and earthquakes in the context of plate tectonic processes. Mass wasting, large storms, floods, and fires; global climate change.
Antirequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2240F/G.
Prerequisite(s): Completion of first year requirements.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 2 tutorial hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 2250Y - Introductory Field Mapping Techniques
Eleven day field camp in the vicinity of Whitefish Falls, northern Lake Huron. Students will examine Precambrian metasedimentary and Early Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, make a geological map, measure a stratigraphic section and learn techniques of paleocurrent analysis.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s):
Corequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2200A/B and registration in a module or program where Earth Sciences 2250Y is mandatory; or registration in an Earth Sciences Minor and a minimum mark of 60% in Earth Sciences 2200A/B.
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 11 day field course, 0.5 course
Note: Students must register prior to the September “Add” deadline for full courses (see Undergraduate Sessional Dates). Partial cost of the field expenses must be borne by the student, and is payable to the Department prior to the September “Add” deadline. The cost per student is $355 in 2014, and will increase by $15 every year thereafter. Fees are non-refundable in the event of a course drop, except in extenuating circumstances.
back to top
Earth Sciences 2260A/B - Stratigraphy and Sedimentology: From Beds to Basins
Origins of sedimentary grains. Transport processes. Characteristics of the main types of sedimentary basins. Stratigraphic methods, including litho-, allo-, bio-, chrono-, and magneto-stratigraphy. Labs include examination of sedimentary rocks, well-log correlation and seismic stratigraphic analysis. At least one field trip is organized.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s):
Corequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2200A/B.
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 2261A/B - Biospheric Interactions Through Time
This course explores the significance of life on Earth, past and present. Topics include ecological revolutions, mass extinctions, roles of life in the mediation of physical and chemical processes in the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere, controls on global biodiversity patterns, and case histories of selected invertebrate and vertebrate groups.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s):
Corequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2200A/B or permission of the Department.
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 2 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 2265A/B - Paleobiology and Paleoecology 
A survey of the fossil record from bacteria, protista, calcareous algae, to invertebrate animals. Topics on each group of fossils include functional morphology, evolutionary trend, ancient living environments, contribution to sediment accumulation and reef-building, utility for dating and correlating rocks and for understanding long-term biodiversity change.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s):
Corequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2200A/B or permission of department.
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 2266F/G - Dinosaur and other Vertebrate Evolution
Introduction to the fossil record that documents the major steps in vertebrate evolution, including the origin and radiation of fishes, amphibians, mammal-like reptiles, dinosaurs, birds, and mammals.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Completion of first-year requirements, and registration in an Earth Sciences, Biology, Anthropology, or Kinesiology module.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 3 lecture hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 2281A/B - Geology for Engineers
Introduction to physical geology with emphasis on the engineering oriented aspects of the Earth Sciences. Topics include: minerals and rocks; mass movements; interpretation of aerial photographs, topographic and geologic maps; surficial processes and their manifestations; surface and ground water; structural geology and subsurface processes; and earth resources.
Antirequisite(s): Earth Sciences 1022A/B, 1081A/B, 2123A/B.
Prerequisite(s): Registration in second, third, or fourth year Civil and Environmental Engineering; or permission of the Department.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 3001A/B - Astrobiology
The study of life in the universe, including the origin of life on Earth, the possibility of life elsewhere in the solar system/universe, and the future of human life off-Earth. This course will include topics that draw from biology, physics, astronomy, geology, chemistry, and other areas.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 1301A/B or 1302A/B; 0.5 credit in any 1000-level Biology course; Earth Sciences 2001F/G.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 2 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 3310A/B - Structure and Chemistry of Minerals and Materials
The study of crystal structure, crystal chemistry and stability of rock-forming minerals. Compatibility of atomic substitution in minerals (solid solution, exsolution) is viewed from structural and thermodynamic perspectives. Selected topics include crystal growth, X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), colour in minerals, crystal field theory and mineral physics.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2206A/B.
Corequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2230A/B
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: Only offered in alternate years.
2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 3312A/B - Genesis of Meteorites and Planetary Materials
The origin of meteorites and planetary materials (igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks) will be deduced from textural evidence obtained from microscopic studies and geochemical evidence. These deductions then will be used to constrain hypotheses concerning genesis and evolution of Earth, other planets and the Solar System.
Antirequisite(s): The former Earth Sciences 2212A/B.
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2200A/B, 2206A/B and 2230A/B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 3313A/B - Igneous Petrology
Study of igneous processes using rock and thin section descriptions (petrography). Discussion of how different compositions and conditions influence the phases present in a rock (phase equilibria). Association of different rock types with plate tectonic setting.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2206A/B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 3314A/B - Sedimentary Petrology
Identification and description of various types of siliciclastic and carbonate rocks; the important characteristics of sedimentary rocks and their key sedimentary features for interpretation of present and ancient despositional environments; survey of diagenetic processes that alter original properties of primary sediments.
Antirequisite(s):
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 3315A/B - Metamorphic Petrology
Study of metamorphic processes using rock and thin section descriptions (petrography). Discussion of factors that control the mineralogy and physical attributes of different metamorphic rocks (e.g., temperature, pressure, composition, fluids). Use of phase equilibria and geochronology to understand metamorphic histories. Association of different rock types with plate tectonic setting.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2230A/B and Earth Sciences 3313A/B or permission of the Department.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 3320A/B - Environmental and Exploration Geophysics II
An advanced course covering the geophysical techniques used for subsurface sensing, with applications to environmental studies and resource exploration. Data analysis includes seismology, gravity, electromagnetic and radiometric applications.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2220A/B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 3321A/B - Physics of the Earth I
An introduction to physics of the Earth's interior. Major topics are: Earth structure from seismic observations, heat flow, the physics of minerals under high temperatures and pressures, equations of state, seismological, thermal and compositional models.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2220A/B or the former 2221A/B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 3 lecture hours, 2 tutorial hour, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 3323A/B - Introduction to Geodesy and Remote Sensing
An introduction to the basic concepts of geodesy and geodetic surveying, to include geometrical and physical geodesy. Material covered will include datums and coordinate systems, space and surface geodetic techniques, gravity and precise leveling, uncertainty estimation, and error propagation. Specific applications will include GPS data collection and analysis.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Calculus 2303A/B or 2503A/B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 3340A/B - Watershed Hydrology
Occurrence, movement, and behavior of water in the hydrologic cycle. The development of quantitative representations of hydrologic processes (e.g., precipitation, evapotranspirtation, runoff, infiltration and unsaturated flow, saturated flow, surface flow). Analysis of stream response hydrographs. Statistical models of predicting flood responses and water resource management.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Any 1.0 course equivalent at the 1000 level from Calculus, Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, or Statistical Sciences, or the former Linear Algebra 1600A/B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 2 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 3341A/B - Waters and Geochemical Cycles
Acquisition of solutes by rain, surface and subsurface waters and their transportation and deposition in natural environments (e.g., formation of ore deposits). Natural sources of potential pollutants (e.g., heavy metals). Geochemical cycles of solutes and waters.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2230A/B or Chemistry 1301A/B or the former Chemistry 1100A/B or the former Chemistry 1050, 1020, or permission of the Department.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 1 tutorial hour, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 3350Y - Advanced Field Mapping Techniques
Eleven day field school in a deformed metamorphic terrain. Observation and documentation of geological features at outcrops. Three-dimensional thinking and reconstruction of structural geometry. Establishing overprinting relationships among structures. Mapping from mesoscopic to macroscopic scales. Kinematic interpretation and tectonic synthesis of geological data at different scales.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2201A/B and 2250Y.  
Corequisite(s): Any two of Earth Sciences 3313A/B, 3314A/B, 3315A/B, and registration in the Major in Earth and Planetary Sciences, Specialization in Geology or Honors Specialization in Geology, or in the Honors Geology or Honors Environmental Geoscience Programs for Professional Registration.
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 11 day field course in May, 0.5 course.   
Note: Students must register prior to the September "Add" deadline for full year courses (see Undergraduate Sessional Dates). Partial cost of the field expenses must be borne by the students, and is payable to the Department prior to the September “Add” deadline. The cost per student is $355 in 2014, and will increase by $15 every year thereafter. Fees are non-refundable in the event of a course drop, except in extenuating circumstances. Students will receive the maximum subsidy if the course is a requirement for their module. In the case that the course is not a requirement, partial subsidy may be provided depending on the module in which the student is currently enrolled (please contact the Departmental Undergraduate Chair).
back to top
Earth Sciences 3369A/B - Geomicrobiology
A study of geomicrobiological processes recorded in the Earth record and bacteria interactions in contemporary systems, including methods for the analysis of prokaryotes. The factors affecting their community structure and function, and their relationship to geochemistry. In the laboratory, students will develop bacteriological culture techniques used in geomicrobiological research.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): 0.5 course from: Earth Sciences 2200A/B, the former Biology 1222 or 1223, Astronomy 2021A/B, Geography 1100, 1300A/B, 1500F/G.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 3370A/B - Metallogeny I: Ore Petrology
A survey course introducing the broad field of mineral deposit geology and the importance of mineral resources. Global theories of ore genesis are considered in deposit classification. Various methods of ore petrology are discussed within the context of specific applications. Laboratory work focuses on reflected light microscopy in the practical study of ore suites.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2200A/B and 2206A/B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 3371A/B - Metallogeny II: Ore Deposit Models
The material covered builds directly on Earth Sciences 3370A/B Metallogenic models are applied to a wide spectrum of deposit types. Emphasis is placed on establishing geological criteria for mineral exploration. Laboratory work focuses on reflected light microscopy in practical studies of ore suites.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 3370A/B or permission of the Department.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 3372A/B - Introduction to Petroleum Systems
The study of the fundamental geological components of petroleum systems responsible for oil and natural gas accumulations in sedimentary basins. The fate of organic matter is traced along a path from source rocks, maturation, migration, to reservoir, trap and seal. Labs incorporate use of industry software.
Antirequisite(s): The former Earth Sciences 4471A/B.
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2260A/B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 4001Y - Planetary Science Field School
Field study of the geology and biology of various Moon/Mars analogue sites in North America. Lectures/seminars/practical exercises will emphasize similarities and differences between the terrestrial sites and other planetary bodies, and the subtle interactions between geology and biology at each site.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2200A/B, 2250Y.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: A ten-day field course typically held in early May, but may be offered at other times of the year depending on weather in international locations, 0.5 course.
Note: Students expecting to graduate in the current year’s Spring Convocation cannot take the course. Students must register prior to the September “Add” deadline for full courses (see Undergraduate Sessional Dates). Partial cost of the field expenses must be borne by the student, and is payable to the Department prior to the September “Add” deadline. The cost per student will vary depending on travel destination. Fees are non-refundable in the event of a course drop, except in extenuating circumstances.
back to top
Earth Sciences 4002A/B - Planetary Image Interpretation
An introduction to online planetary image resources; use of remote sensing data from spacecraft in the context of planetary geology and surface processes. Emphasis on Lunar and Martian imagery and its role in broadly defining the origin and evolution of surficial features on these bodies.
Antirequisite(s): The former Planetary Science 4830A/B.
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2001F/G.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 2 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 4400A/B - Earth Evolution
A survey of the geological evidence of change during the last 4 billion years of earth history; the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.
Antirequisite(s): Earth Sciences 4461A/B.  
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 3313A/B and 3314A/B or permission of the Department.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 4415A/B - Advanced Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology 
The origin and abundance of elements and their distribution within the earth. Geochemical methods (trace elements and radiogenic isotopes) and experimental approaches to determine the history of igneous rocks. Melting and crystallization processes, ascent and emplacement of magma. Equilibrium methods to examine recrystallization in different metamorphic environments.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 3313A/B and 3315A/B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 4420A/B - Geophysical Forward and Inverse Modelling Methods
An introduction to potential theory and methods of interpreting geophysical data through the construction of forward models, optimization of misfit surfaces, and inversion.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Calculus 2303A/B or 2503A/B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 4421A/B - Physics of the Earth II
Advanced topics in the physics of the Earth and planets including: magnetism; paleomagnetism and the geomagnetic timescale; radioactivity, radioactive dating and Earth’s age; elasticity and flexure of plates; principles of continuum mechanics; elastic properties of the Earth’s lithosphere; principles of isostasy; rheology of rocks; shape and rotation of the Earth.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 3321A/B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 3 lecture hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 4423A/B - Applied Seismology
Advanced concepts in the application of seismic-reflection and refraction techniques for exploration of the subsurface. Topics include: elastic wave propagation fundamentals; prestack and post-stack data processing and analysis; deconvolution of time series data; seismic migration; inversion of traveltime data; amplitude-versus offset analysis; 3-D seismic interpretation.
Antirequisite(s):
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 4424A/B - Advanced Mineral Physics
Introduction to elementary solid state theory, high pressure geophysics, phase transformations, elasticity, physical properties and mineral physics of the earth's mantle and core.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 3321A/B or permission of the Department.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 4425A/B - Global Seismology
Advanced concepts in earthquake rupture dynamics and seismic analysis of global earth structure. Topics covered will include: seismic wavefield theory; seismic sources and source parameters; synthetic seismograms; global seismic tomography; methods of teleseismic data analysis.
Antirequisite(s):
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 lab/tutorial hours, 0.5 course
back to top
Earth Sciences 4431A/B - Isotope Geochemistry in Earth and Environmental Science
Stable isotopes (O,H,C,S,N), atmosphere, hydrosphere, sedimentary and diagenetic systems, hydrothermal systems, fluid migration, ore-forming fluids, igneous and metamorphic rocks. Environmental applications: groundwater, oceans, wetlands, acid rain; acid mine drainage, climate fluctuation; global cycle modification. Radiogenic isotopes: dating techniques; crust and mantle evolution, environmental tracing.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2230A/B or 3341A/B or completion of any 2000 level half-course in Chemistry; or registration in the third or fourth year of an Environmental Sciences module; or permission of the Department.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 3 lecture hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 4432A/B - Geochemistry of Metals, Melts and Fluids in the Crust
The principals of metal concentration and deposition in magmatic and hydrothermal environments are examined. Natural and experimental data, including fluid inclusion, stable isotope, metal solubility, mineral stability and metal partition behavior are used to develop genetic models for ore deposits, which form the basis of mineral exploration strategies.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2230A/B and 3370A/B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 3 lecture hours, 1 tutorial hour,  0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 4440A/B - Fundamentals of Ground Water Flow and Contaminant Transport 
Occurrence, distribution, movement, chemistry and composition of ground water as a function of the geological environment; water quality and ground water contamination; collection and evaluation of hydrogeologic data; modelling ground-water flow and advective transport; case histories.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 3340A/B, or Civil and Environmental Engineering 3321A/B and 3322A/B, or the former Civil and Environmental Engineering 3326, or 80% in Geography 3342A/B, or permission of the Department.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 2 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 4444A/B - Hazardous Mine Wastes
Introduction to uranium, Cu-Pb-Zn sulphide and lode-gold deposits. Quantitative modelling is introduced, and focuses on reactions occurring in mine wastes. Common geochemical remediation practices are discussed. Students will propose and test chemical remedial actions for waste sites using geochemical modelling. Laboratories include the analysis and leaching of ores.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 3341A/B or completion of any 3000 level course in Chemistry or Civil Engineering; or registration in Year 4 of the Science of Materials modules; or permission of the Department.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 4450Y - Regional Field Geology
Field study of the geology of major structural provinces of North America. A ten day field trip at the beginning of September.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 3350Y and registration in the Honors Specialization in Geology, or the Honors Geology or Honors Environmental Geoscience Programs for Professional Registration, or permission of the Department.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: A ten day field course in early September, 0.5 course
Note: Students must inform the Department of their intention to register in the course prior to May 1st and register prior to August 15th. Partial cost of the field course must be borne by the student, and is payable to the Department by May 1st. The cost per student is $345 in 2010, and will increase by $15 every year thereafter.
back to top
Earth Sciences 4451Z - Geophysical Field Techniques
An off-campus Geophysical field school providing an introduction to geophysical techniques, including gravity, magnetic, seismic and electromagnetic methods. Classroom lectures, with accompanying outdoor sessions and field exercises. Offered in co-operation with other Universities, with participation from geophysical contractors. The course meets professional registration requirements for Field Techniques (Geophysics).
Antirequisite(s): The former Earth Sciences 4451Y.
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2220A/B or permission of the Department.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: A ten day field course in early September, 0.5 course.
Note:  Students must inform the Department of their intention to register in the course prior to May 1st, and register prior to August 15th. The field course is subsidized by the department. Students will pay $650 in 2014, payable by May 1st. The cost may increase by $25 every year thereafter.
back to top
Earth Sciences 4452Z - International Geoscience Field Experience
A research-level field course to globally significant international or Canadian geological type localities. Students will gain practical field experience through the collection, analysis, and presentation of primary geological and geophysical field data. Lectures/ seminars/ practical exercises will emphasize the interaction between the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the Earth system.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2250Y and registration in year 4 of a Specialization, Honors Specialization or Professional Program offered by the Department of Earth Sciences with a minimum cumulative average of 70%.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: A 10 to 14 day field course typically held in April/May although it may be offered at other times of the year given the weather in international locations, 0.5 course.
Note: Students must register prior to the September "Add" deadline for full year courses (see Undergraduate Sessional Dates). Registration in the course is conditional and competitive as course costs are largely covered by external funds raised by the department just prior to departure. A committee will adjudicate students on the basis of grades in program courses, a vision statement submitted as part of the application process, and demonstrated interest in field studies. Course may not be used towards minimum graduation requirements. Students who are not successful will have the course dropped from their record; normal drop dates do not apply to this course. Students are expected to contribute toward the cost of accommodation, food, and miscellaneous expenses.
back to top
Earth Sciences 4458A/B - Selected Topics in Earth Sciences
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Permission of the Department
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 5 hours per week, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 4459A/B - Selected Topics in Earth Sciences
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Permission of the Department.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 5 hours per week, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 4460A/B - Sedimentology of Clastic and Carbonate Rocks
An overview of the principal depositional environments of clastic and carbonate rocks, with emphasis on the recognition and interpretation of sedimentary facies and facies successions. Field and laboratory exercises involving outcrop and subsurface data will be used to integrate facies analysis with sequence stratigraphy.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2260A/B and Earth Sciences 3314A/B; or permission of the Department.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 4461A/B - Advanced Paleontology
Advanced topics on applications of paleontological data to reconstructions of evolutionary history, ancient environments, geochronology, and paleobiogeography.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 2265A/B or 2266F/G.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 4462A/B - Glacial and Quaternary Geology
The last 2 million years of Earth history. Glacial-interglacial cycles, global sea level and climate changes, and their causes. Extent and dynamics of North American Pliestocene ice sheets. Dating methods, Quaternary resources, waste disposal, air photo interpretation and surficial mapping. Laboratory exercises, field project, field trip.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): 0.5 course from Earth Sciences 2260A/B, 3314A/B, Geography 2330A/B, 3331A/B, 3333A/B, 3334A/B, 3350A/B, the former 3332A/B, or permission of the Department.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 seminar/laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 4470A/B - Global Metallogenic Cycles in Crustal Evolution
Advanced-level study of the global distribution of ore deposits. Problems of metal source, transport and deposition are discussed within the context of crustal evolution. Ore types sensitive to secular changes in the Earth's lithosphere-hydrosphere-atmosphere-biosphere are emphasized. Field excursions to major ore districts may be arranged.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 3370A/B and 3371A/B, or permission of the Department.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 seminar/laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 4472A/B - Applied Petroleum Assessment
Advanced-level study of characterization and quantitative assessment of petroleum plays and prospects, with an emphasis on the integration of Geoscience, introductory reservoir engineering and basic economic indicators on the valuation of oil and gas properties. Labs will analyze case studies using industry software.
Antirequisite(s): The former Earth Sciences 4471A/B.
Prerequisite(s): Earth Sciences 3372A/B, or permission of the Department.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: Only offered in alternate years.
2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
back to top
Earth Sciences 4490E - Senior Thesis
A presentation of research on a chosen problem. Original data must be generated from field or laboratory studies and analyzed using appropriate methodologies. The results must be integrated into the existing literature on the topic. Independence in the conduct and reporting of research must be demonstrated.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Registration in year 4 of a Specialization, Honors Specialization or Professional Program offered by the Department of Earth Sciences, or permission of the Department.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 1.0 course.
back to top
Academic Calendar 2014 UNDERGRADUATE COURSE INFORMATION Earth Sciences (S)
Decision Academic